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AMD - age-related yellow macular degeneration - retinal diseases

At the Laser Eye Microsurgery Centre, we carry out comprehensive and precise diagnosis of retinal and choroidal conditions. We use the world’s most modern fundus cameras from the Japanese company Topcon. We use these to take very high resolution coloured photographs, red-free and infra-red images, fluorescein and indocyanine angiography. The photographs are taken in three enlargements depending on the area of the retina and choroid affected by disease, which enables the circulation and its pathology to be very precisely tracked in a given area. We can carry out these tests for conditions of the anterior and posterior sections of the eyeball.


When the eyes are fully functional you can read, drive, check your watch or recognise a familiar face without difficulty

The first symptom of AMD is warped vision and a stain appearing in front of the eye.

AMD occurs in two forms:

  • dry
  • exudative (wet)

We diagnose using a stereoscopic examination of the eyeground, and fluoroscein and indocyanine angiography. Patients with initial changes to the eyeground or a family history of such disease should take an Amsler test systematically (once a week), and once every two or three months take a PHP test (microperimetry) which documents the presence of warping and allows monitoring of the effects of changes to the eyeground on the quality of vision.


Degeneration of the periphery of the retina:

These are changes which you cannot notice by yourself, as they are located at the periphery of the retina, i.e. the part which is not used for seeing, but which is an extension of the most important central part. Sometimes the symptoms are sudden flashes in the eye (not connected with any light source) and black spots in the field of vision, “spiders” or other floaters can also be seen before the eyes. This condition is more common among people who have sight defects (near-sightedness, far-sightedness, astigmatism). These changes can result in detachment of the retina, which is treated surgically. This is why it is best to protect yourself against this with the use of laser photocoagulation before it deteriorates and results in a detached retina.

Diabetic retinopathy:

This is an ocular complication of diabetes. If diabetes is properly treated, i.e. there are no major fluctuations in the blood glucose level during the course of a day, then retinopathy usually occurs later and develops more slowly. The appearance of diabetic changes in the eyegrounds is unfortunately inevitable, so it is very important for diabetics to have their eyes tested at least once a year. It is particularly important to check the eyeground. A fluorescein angiography evaluates the progress of changes in the retina. This examination provides indications of the laser photocoagulations to be done, which are the only effective treatment so far for diabetic retinopathy.

Retinal venous thrombosis:

Factors increasing the risk of thrombosis are smoking, excessive coffee drinking, stress, untreated arterial blood pressure and hormonal contraception. All these factors are affecting increasing numbers of people, especially the young and the active. The basic symptom of thrombosis is a sudden deterioration of sight. The ultimate acuity of a patient’s vision depends on treatment being undertaken quickly.

Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR):

This mainly affects young and impulsive people. Its symptom is the sudden appearance of a grey blur in the field of vision, and deformation of the image.


We often use laser therapy to treat retinal conditions. In the case of eye conditions which are complications of general diseases (diabetes, high blood pressure), the patient should above all treat the causes of the sight problems.

We also recommend an appropriate diet – fish at least twice a week, and fruit and vegetables. Give up smoking!

In intravitreal injection therapy we use AMD when the exudative form is developing, pathological vessels are extending under the retina, me have to limit their expansion and the damage to the retina. Then it is important to start the treatment as quickly as possible, so do not ignore any symptoms which worry you. The treatment has to be repeated every 4-14 weeks depending on the method.


Important for the patient

The results of the test depend on your patience – the better your pupil dilates, the easier it will be for the doctor to carry out the test and the more exact the result will be.

The test is not comfortable for the patient, as we shine the light of a lamp through the dilated pupil. It is not unbearably uncomfortable, however

Our staff

Dr. Magdalena Ulińska MD

Has been an eye disease specialist since 1993. She defended her doctoral thesis on ophthalmology…

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Dr. Hab. Agnieszka Kamińska MD

Ophthalmologist, microsurgeon with many years of experience. A graduate of the 2nd Faculty of Medicine…

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Dr. Sława Borowska MD

Graduate of the 1st Faculty of Medicine at Warsaw Medical University, an eye disease specialist.…

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Dr. Anna Borucka MD

Dr.Anna Borucka MD Graduated from the 1st Medical Faculty of Warsaw Medical University. Obtained her…

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Dr. Swietłana Jachimczyk

Dr. Anna Skłodowska MD

Dr. Marta Kita-Mosek

EDUCATION: Warsaw Medical University; Specialisation in ophthalmology PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw;…

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Dr. Hab. Jacek Robaszkiewicz MD

I was born on 21 July 1970 in Aleksandrów Łódzki. After completing secondary school in…

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